From: Paul Hutson <>


Date: Wed, 15 Aug 2001 14:50:41 -0500


Hi, all.

I am seeking to simulate AUC-response relationships using $PRED, but

without $PK, since there are no TIME points involved. After generating the

simulated AUC-response (AUC, Effect) data, I would then evaluate them in

one of two effect data analysis models.

Several issues are confusing me:


1. In the SIMULATION 2 EXAMPLE, the generated table is described as having

the "concatenated output of all the subproblems...". what does this mean,

since I usually consider concatenation in FORTRAN to be a merging of

strings? Are the DV or other simulated values in the TABLE some form of

aggregate of the 10 repetitions? If not, where did the DVs from the

iterations go?


2. What are the advantages of using SUBPROBLEMS=x as opposed to providing

dummy "patient" IDs of 1..X?


Thanks very much.



Paul Hutson, Pharm.D.

Associate Professor (CHS)

UW School of Pharmacy

NOTE NEW ADDRESS effective 6/2001

777 Highland Avenue

Madison, WI 53705-2222

Tel: (608) 263-2496

FAX: (608) 265-5421

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From: Nick Holford <>

Subject: Re: $SIMULATION

Date: Thu, 16 Aug 2001 08:23:56 +1200




Concatenated literally means chained together. With NONMEM this means:



results of subproblem 1


results of subproblem 2



Advantage of using SUBPROBLEM is that you can easily select the number of replications without having to change the original data file template.


Bottom line, just try it and look at the TABLE output...




Nick Holford, Divn Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology

University of Auckland, 85 Park Rd, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand tel:+64(9)373-7599x6730 fax:373-7556